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Less than 10 percent of Americans have coronavirus antibodies, a new study finds.
Less than 10 percent of Americans have antibodies to the new coronavirus, suggesting that the nation is even further from herd immunity than had been previously estimated, according to a study published Friday in The Lancet.
The study looked at blood samples from 28,500 patients on dialysis in 46 states, the first such nationwide analysis.
The results roughly matched those of an analysis to be released next week by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, which found that about 10 percent of blood samples from sites across the country contained antibodies to the virus.
Dr. Robert R. Redfield, the director of the C.D.C., was referring to that analysis when he told a congressional committee this week that 90 percent of all Americans were still vulnerable to the virus, a C.D.C. spokeswoman said.
An accurate estimate of the country’s immunity is important because President Trump, in collaboration with his new medical adviser, Dr. Scott Atlas, has tentatively promoted the idea of reaching herd immunity by canceling lockdowns, mask-wearing campaigns and social-distancing mandates. The plan would be to let the virus wash through the population while attempting to protect the people deemed most vulnerable.
Most public health experts say that such a policy would lead to hundreds of thousands more deaths, as it is impossible to protect all Americans who are elderly or have one of a dozen underlying conditions, including diabetes and heart disease, that render a person more likely to become seriously ill or to die.
The study of dialysis patients was done by scientists from Stanford University and published in The Lancet.
It found wide variances in antibody levels around the country. In the New York metropolitan area, including New Jersey, antibody levels were higher than 25 percent of samples tested. In the western United States, they were below 5 percent.
Over all, the researchers estimated the prevalence to be about 9.3 percent.
Dialysis patients are not necessarily representative of the whole population, and the study is just one of many attempts to land on an accurate estimate of seroprevalence.
The C.D.C. study, which has not yet been released, was described by a C.D.C. spokeswoman. It involved testing blood samples collected at 52 commercial laboratories between early July and mid-August in all 50 states, the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico.
Based on 46 sites with the most data, C.D.C. researchers concluded that the overall national prevalence rate was less than 10 percent. The prevalence rate ranged from lows of less than 1 percent in some states to about 22.5 percent in New York State.
The implication of the antibody studies, Dr. Redfield said in a statement, is that the vast majority of Americans are still susceptible to the virus and therefore should continue to take steps such as wearing masks, staying six feet away from other people, washing hands frequently, staying home when sick and “being smart about crowds.”
In the U.S., the virus is spreading fastest in the heartland.
The heart of the American outbreak is shifting to the heartland. As the coronavirus crisis drags on, less populous states in the Midwest and the Great Plains are seeing furious growth, while dense states in the Northeast are experiencing some of the slowest rates of new infection.
In South Dakota, cases have risen steadily throughout the month of September. In the past week, more new cases have been diagnosed than in any other seven-day stretch of the pandemic and twice broken a record for coronavirus hospitalizations. Officials announced 457 new cases Friday.
Gov. Kristi Noem, a Republican, has never issued a stay-at-home order or a statewide masking ordinance. She has encouraged large gatherings to continue unabated, including the president’s campaign rally at Mount Rushmore on the Fourth of July and the famous Sturgis motorcycle rally, which led to hundreds of new infections in neighboring states.
Across state lines, North Dakota is experiencing the single fastest rate of growth of coronavirus cases per capita in the country. In the past week, the state has averaged 390 new cases per day — a 50 percent increase from the average two weeks ago.
An effort to bring things under control in North Dakota imploded on Friday, when the state’s chief health officer resigned after less than a month on the job. The officer, Dr. Paul Mariani, had issued and then rescinded an order requiring residents to quarantine if exposed to the virus, or risk a misdemeanor charge. Gov. Doug Burgum accepted the resignation, saying the penalty had become a “large and unforeseen distraction.”
In Wisconsin cases have more than doubled since the beginning of September. The state, a critical battleground in the presidential election, has had an average of more than 2,000 cases per day in the past week.
Gov. Tony Evers warned in a video message Friday that the state was experiencing “unprecedented, near exponential growth,” which he attributed to a spike among people aged 18 to 24, who he said had an infection rate five times higher than other age groups.
Two more central states also reported single-day case records on Friday: Oklahoma with 1,276 and Missouri with more than 2,020. The other three states that reported single-day records were Idaho, Oregon, and Utah.
In Oklahoma, more cases have been announced over the last week than in any other seven-day stretch of the pandemic.
And in Missouri, Gov. Mike Parson and his wife have tested positive for the virus, but are still planning to host a fall festival at the governor’s mansion on Oct. 3, a few days before the end of their 14-day quarantine window.
Florida lifts restrictions for restaurants and other businesses.
Gov. Ron DeSantis of Florida lifted state restrictions for restaurants and many other businesses on Friday as the state moved into the next reopening phase.
Mr. DeSantis, a Republican and avid supporter of President Trump who spoke at the president’s rally in Jacksonville on Thursday, signed the order, allowing restaurants and many other businesses as soon as Friday afternoon to operate at full capacity as part of Phase 3 of his administration’s reopening plan.
“We’re not closing anything going forward,” the governor said at a midday news conference in St. Petersburg.
County governments are allowed to limit capacity but not by more than 50 percent, Mr. DeSantis said — a new restriction on local control.
“I think this will be very, very important to the industry,” Mr. DeSantis said, calling the wholesale shuttering of restaurants in particular to be unacceptable. “You can’t say no after six months and just have people twisting in the wind.”
Mr. DeSantis refused to mandate mask usage in the state, insisting that such a decision should be left up to local governments. Yet his administration has increasingly stepped in to prevent counties from imposing more stringent virus restrictions. Many of Florida’s largest counties are run by Democrats.
In a statement, the state’s Democratic Party chair, Terrie Rizzo, took issue with Mr. DeSantis restricting local governments from “taking evidence-based measures to protect their communities.”
“We all desperately want things to return back to normal, but that can’t happen when DeSantis and Trump have no plan to get us out of this public health crisis,” she said.
Under the state’s reopening plan, Phase 3 allows for bars and nightclubs to operate at full capacity “with limited social distancing protocols.” It was unclear immediately how the order would affect Miami-Dade County, the county hardest-hit by the virus, which has kept bars and nightclubs closed since March. The county’s mayor had said he hoped to allow for some operation with restrictions such as table service only; the governor’s order prohibits the closure of any business.
The order also appeared to render largely toothless other local restrictions, such as mask mandates and curfews, by suspending the collection of individual fines and other penalties imposed for violating virus-related restrictions.
Cases are down significantly in the state after a big surge over the summer. The governor has touted the fact that Florida was able to come down from the spike without imposing a lockdown as evidence that shutting down businesses should not be contemplated to try to contain the virus in the future. Jason Mahon, a spokesman for Florida’s Division of Emergency Management, which operates state-run testing sites, says the sites have plenty of capacity but fewer people are coming to get tested. Testing is also conducted at municipal, federal and private sites.
As of Thursday, Florida was testing 38 percent of a testing target developed by researchers at the Harvard Global Health Institute that measures the minimum amount of testing necessary to mitigate the disease. The state had a positivity rate of 12 percent for the total number of tests processed over the two-week period ending Thursday, according to data analyzed by The Times. Positive rates should be at or below 5 percent for at least 14 days before a state or country can safely reopen, according to the World Health Organization.
Emergency room visits related to the virus peaked in early July and hospitalizations on July 21, Mr. DeSantis said. On Friday, Florida added more than 2,800 new cases and 120 new deaths. In total, the state has recorded more than 695,000 cases and more than 13,900 deaths, according to a Times database.
If a county wants to restrict restaurant capacity between 50 and 100 percent, Mr. DeSantis said, it will need to provide justification to the state.
“The idea that government dictating this is better than them making decisions so that their customers have confidence, I think, is misplaced,” he said.
‘I feel sorry for Americans’: The world watches the U.S. response to the virus.
As the pandemic drags on and the presidential election approaches, much of the world is watching the United States with a mix of shock, chagrin and, most of all, bafflement.
The diminution of the United States’ global image began before the pandemic, as Trump administration officials snubbed international accords and embraced an America First policy. Now, though, its reputation seems to be in free-fall.
From Southeast Asia to North America, people are asking: How did a superpower allow itself to be felled by a virus? And why won’t President Trump commit to a peaceful transition of power?
The number of known cases in the United States surpassed seven million on Thursday, according to a Times database, and California, the country’s most populous state, recorded its 800,000th case since the start of the pandemic. The United States reached six million cases less than a month ago, on Aug. 30.
Already, an American passport, which once allowed easy access to almost every country in the world, is no longer a valuable travel pass. Because of the virus, American tourists are banned from most of Europe, Asia, Africa, Oceania and Latin America.
That hasn’t stopped politicians around the world from commiserating with a superpower they think has lost its way.
“I feel sorry for Americans,” said U Myint Oo, a member of Parliament in Myanmar, a poor country struggling with open ethnic warfare and a coronavirus outbreak that could overload its broken hospitals. “But we can’t help the U.S. because we are a very small country.”
The same sentiment prevails in Canada, where two out of three citizens live within about 60 miles of the U.S. border.
“Personally, it’s like watching the decline of the Roman Empire,” said Mike Bradley, the mayor of Sarnia, a Canadian city on the border with Michigan.
The pandemic prompts Japan to bring manufacturing home from China, but it’s easier said than done.
But the government’s challenge is vast — like tossing pennies to hold back economic tides.
The allure of China remains strong for companies dependent on its enormous market, cheap but well-trained labor and efficient infrastructure. When the Trump administration tried to overcome these advantages by raising tariffs on Chinese products, few if any U.S. companies moved production home.
In Japan, the world’s third-largest economy, growth has been fueled by a booming China. Chinese factories have scooped up Japanese machine tools, high-tech components and know-how. And Chinese tourists eager to take advantage of their newfound prosperity have flooded Japanese stores, hotels and restaurants, adding to Japan’s wealth.
In that sense, the idea of an economic “decoupling” is a nonstarter for Japanese policymakers and companies alike.
For Tokyo, “it’s more about how you manage the risk of that relationship than whether you can orchestrate an economic divorce of sorts,” said Mireya Solís, a co-director of the Center for East Asia Policy Studies at the Brookings Institution in Washington.
The French Open is scaled back as France’s caseload surges.
The French Open tennis tournament begins on Sunday in Paris, where residents have spent much of the past several months enjoying some semblance of pre-pandemic life — long afternoons and evenings at cafes, access to many of the world’s best-known museums, and students attending schools in person.
French Open organizers aimed to make their event more lenient than the recent United States Open in New York, where players were largely isolated and closely watched.
In New York, for example, players were subject to contact tracing through radio frequency identification technology. But in Paris, while players are encouraged to take personal responsibility and respect social distancing guidelines, there are not strict rules about where they can go or eat.
“It is impossible to put a bubble around a tennis player,” Dr. Bernard Montalvan, the French federation’s chief medical officer, said in a recent interview with the French sports journal L’Équipe.
Still, with France’s coronavirus caseload surging, government officials have reintroduced strict limits on the size of gatherings.
The French Tennis Federation aimed to admit 11,500 fans per day but had to reduce that number at least twice, and now just 1,000 fans are expected each day at Roland Garros, the jewel-box facility in western Paris that hosts the Grand Slam event.
Players were also tested upon arrival in Paris, just as they were when they arrived in New York. Already, organizers have eliminated a coach and at least seven players for either testing positive or being exposed to a coach who did.
The virus hits home for Bali’s governor, who reopened the island to tourists.
In late July, the governor of Bali, Indonesia’s most popular tourist destination, eagerly reopened the island to domestic tourists, including those from provinces hard hit by the coronavirus.
Now the governor, I Wayan Koster, is paying the price.
He disclosed this week that more than 20 workers at his official residence had tested positive for the coronavirus, including aides, a waiter, a gardener and a typist.
Mr. Koster said he had tested negative. But his wife, Putri Suastini, said in an Instagram video posted on Saturday that she had tested positive, albeit without showing any symptoms.
Bali, a predominantly Hindu island in a largely Muslim country, has long attracted domestic and foreign tourists with its wide beaches, scenic rice fields, religious ceremonies and an active volcano. It is the engine of Indonesia’s tourism industry.
Mr. Koster, who previously promoted inhaling the steam of a traditional alcoholic beverage as a treatment for Covid-19, said this week that he was “horrified” by the spread of the illness in his household. He urged people to take the virus seriously.
“If anyone says that the coronavirus is a conspiracy, it is not true,” he said on Thursday at an event to launch a website promoting Bali’s traditional markets.
It was unclear why Mr. Koster, 57, had not placed himself in isolation by the time of his announcement. The governor and his spokesman could not be reached by telephone on Saturday and did not respond to messages.
On Friday, workers could be seen spraying disinfectant from a truck and cleaning the grounds of the governor’s mansion.
Mr. Koster said last month that more than 75,000 people on the island were out of work. Many hotel workers have returned to their home villages, where they can help their families grow food. Others, who don’t have access to farmland in Bali, are struggling to feed themselves and rely in part on assistance from aid groups.
Since reopening to domestic travelers at the end of July, Bali’s reported cases have more than doubled to 8,389 and the number of deaths has risen more than fivefold to 245. The central government has said it will not open the island to foreign tourists until at least the end of the year.
Indonesia, with its case numbers rising rapidly, has set a new daily record five out of the last seven days. It reports 266,845 cases and 10,218 deaths, among the highest in East Asia. Independent health experts say the actual numbers are probably much higher.
Argentina’s death rate soars as the virus spreads in provinces far from the capital.
Outbreaks hitting various parts of Argentina are raising alarm as the country grapples with one of the world’s highest coronavirus death rates.
Argentina reported 2,306 deaths over the last seven days, a rate of 5.2 deaths per 100,000 residents. That places Argentina behind only tiny St. Maarten in the Caribbean in per capita virus deaths in that period, according to a Times database.
The country has recorded a total of 76,553 cases over the last seven days, the sixth-highest total worldwide, behind India, the United States, Brazil, France and Spain. But its per capita rate of cases in that period, 172, was higher than all of those countries.
In the Americas, only Aruba and Costa Rica reported more cases per capita than Argentina in that period.
The soaring figures reflect how the virus can spin out of control when mitigation efforts are relaxed. Argentina, which implemented one of Latin America’s strictest lockdowns in March, now seems to be faring worse than countries like Brazil and Mexico, which have grappled with devastating outbreaks.
But they may also reflect inconsistencies in data reporting that can cloud the picture of what the virus is doing. Federico Tiberti, a Princeton doctoral student who analyzes Argentina’s coronavirus data reporting, pointed out that 80 of the 390 deaths reported on Thursday in the country involved fatalities from more than a month ago, as officials make their way through a backlog.
The lag in registering the deaths raises the possibility that the virus could have been spreading more intensively in the country than previously estimated in recent weeks.
Argentina has seen a total of 678,266 cases, and 14,766 deaths, according to a Times database
In other international news:
In Australia, the health minister for the state of Victoria resigned on Saturday after an inquiry into the causes of a second wave of infections in Melbourne. The state’s premier had blamed the minister, Jenny Mikakos, for her role in a bungled quarantine program that allowed returning travelers to spread the virus via hotel security guards. Ms. Mikakos said in a statement announcing her resignation that she was “deeply sorry for the situation that Victorians find themselves in,” but she denied that it was a result of her actions. Melbourne, Victoria’s state capital, is expected to ease its lockdown rules on Monday.
People will only be allowed to fly out of Israel for vacation if they purchased tickets before new virus lockdown rules went into effect at 2 p.m. on Friday, officials said. Israel has recorded nearly 37,000 new cases over the past week, a per capita rate that is the highest in the world.
The mayor of Moscow, Sergei Sobyanin, asked older people to stay at home and businesses to move to remote work as infections rise in the city. Noting doctors’ concerns over the pairing of the pandemic and the coming flu season, he warned that if the orders were not taken seriously, a full lockdown could follow.
Prime Minister Justin Trudeau said on Friday that Canada would contribute $440 million Canadian to COVAX, a global vaccine production effort involving the World Health Organization. The prime minister also announced that the country had agreed to buy up to 20 million doses of a proposed vaccine from AstraZeneca, leaving the nation of 37 million with agreements to buy 282 million doses of six different proposed vaccines.
South Korea announced new social-distancing guidelines on Friday as millions of people prepared to travel to their hometowns during one of the country’s biggest holidays. The Chuseok holiday runs from Wednesday to Oct. 4 and poses a new challenge for health officials who have been struggling to contain cases. Starting Monday, villages cannot hold community parties of more than 50 people indoors and more than 100 outdoors, and facilities for entertainment, including drinking, will be closed in provincial towns.
The Hong Kong police on Friday banned a pro-democracy march planned for Oct. 1, China’s National Day, citing the pandemic and disruptions at past protests. The Civil Human Rights Front, the organizer of the march, said it would appeal the decision. In a letter shared by the organizer, the police cited the government’s ban on public gatherings of more than four people as one of the reasons for outlawing the protest.
The United Nations warned that the worst flooding in Sudan in three decades had damaged or destroyed several health facilities, hundreds of schools, the homes of nearly 830,000 people and many farms just ahead of harvest, disrupting the country’s pandemic response.
Saturday is the next chance to take the SAT, but many students can’t get a spot.
After a spring and summer in which the pandemic thwarted the chances of many high school students to take college admissions tests, the SAT added a September date for the first time in decades, and more than 334,000 students registered to sharpen their No. 2 pencils on Saturday.
But at least half of them still won’t be able to take it.
Nearly four in 10 testing sites that were set to administer the SAT this weekend have told the College Board, the group that creates the exam, that they will be closed because of concerns about the spread of the coronavirus in their communities. About 183,000 students are registered at those sites.
Test takers in August encountered similar obstacles, when more than half of the 402,000 students who registered for the SAT were unable to take it because of closures.
“I fully understand the emotions students and families are feeling,” said Priscilla Rodriguez, the College Board’s vice president of college readiness assessments. “There’s the normal stress of applying to college. Imagine doing it this year with Covid.”
Each local testing center determines whether it is safe to administer the exam, the College Board said, adding that closures for Saturday have been concentrated mostly in California and the Northeast. Testing sites that remain open are required to enforce mask-wearing and social-distancing rules.
Of those that remain open Saturday, only 9 percent are at full capacity, the College Board said, but it’s too late for students whose site has closed to register elsewhere. The test will be offered again in November and December, though early application deadlines for colleges start in November.
Roughly 2.2 million students took the SAT in 2019. So far, nearly a million have been able to take it this year. The College Board is hoping another one million can take the test in the coming three weeks, including on Saturday and other dates in which “school-day” versions of it are offered; those tend to draw students from lower-income populations, the group said.
The SAT’s rival test, the ACT, has faced similar disruptions.
Though more than half of U.S. colleges and universities, including many of the most competitive, have dropped the requirement for standardized test scores this year, some students said they still believe forgoing the exam could hurt their prospects.
“It’s hard for me to trust that two people’s applications will be weighed the same if one of them has a test score and. the other doesn’t,” said Myriam Joseph-Schilz, a high school senior from Bethesda, Md.
N.Y.C. warns some Orthodox Jewish areas that they could face a lockdown without progress on the virus.
Facing a worrying spike in cases in Orthodox Jewish neighborhoods, New York City health officials began carrying out emergency inspections at private religious schools on Friday and threatened to impose an extraordinary lockdown in those communities that would be the first major retreat by the city on reopening since the pandemic began.
Mayor Bill de Blasio ordered the Police Department and the Sheriff’s Office to enforce public health guidelines in several Orthodox Jewish neighborhoods in Queens and Brooklyn, where residents often do not wear masks or engage in social distancing. But community leaders said residents have been resisting the guidelines because of hostility toward Mr. de Blasio and the growing influence of Mr. Trump, whose views on masks and the pandemic have been widely embraced.
The crackdown is occurring shortly before Yom Kippur, the holiest day on the Jewish calendar, which begins on Sunday night, and it was not immediately clear the impact that the measures might have on the ability of people to gather in synagogues. The Health Department said that if significant progress toward following guidelines did not occur by Monday, officials could issue fines, limit gatherings or force closings of businesses or schools.
“This may be the most precarious moment we are facing since we emerged from lockdown,” Dr. Dave A. Chokshi, the city’s health commissioner, said at a news conference in Brooklyn.
Officials this week released statistics showing that the positivity rate in some Orthodox Jewish neighborhoods had grown to anywhere from 3 percent to 6 percent, significantly more than the city’s overall rate of between 1 percent and 2 percent. Officials are especially worried about the positivity rates in the Brooklyn neighborhoods of Borough Park, Midwood and Gravesend, which they have referred to as the “Ocean Parkway Cluster.”
Mr. de Blasio said on Friday on the Brian Lehrer radio show that the city had closed four yeshivas over violations of social distancing rules. “This is an indicator of something we’ll be fighting for a little while here,” he said.
The uptick in these neighborhoods amounts to the first major virus challenge for the city after months of declining or flat numbers. The concern now is that if the outbreak spreads further in the Orthodox community, it could begin to take hold elsewhere, with even more serious consequences. If the city’s overall positivity rate hits 3 percent, that would trigger a new lockdown, including the closing of public schools.
Visits to Borough Park showed how the rules are often ignored. The outbreak devastated New York’s Orthodox Jewish community in March and April, but this week, there was hardly a face mask in sight, as if the pandemic had never happened.
In other U.S. news:
In rural Minnesota, a coronavirus survey was stopped after multiple occurrences of residents “intimidating and shouting racial and ethnic slurs” at workers going door-to-door, the state’s health department said. The state has reported an average of nearly 900 cases per day over the past week, according to a New York Times database.
Joining a growing number of colleges that have taken disciplinary action against Greek organizations that violate health rules, Indiana University has forced a fraternity to shut down through next summer because it held a large event at which people did not wear face masks or socially distance. The fraternity, Alpha Epsilon Pi, agreed to close its chapter house in Bloomington.
Two former leaders of a Massachusetts veterans’ home were indicted on charges of criminal neglect in connection with the coronavirus deaths of at least 76 residents at the facility, the state’s attorney general said on Friday. Bennett Walsh, 50, and Dr. David Clinton, 71, were indicted Thursday by a state grand jury on charges related to their work at the Holyoke Soldiers’ Home in Holyoke, Mass. Each man was indicted on five counts, and the specific charges were for caretakers who “wantonly or recklessly” permit or cause bodily injury and abuse, neglect or mistreatment of an older or disabled person.
The major U.S. stock indexes all rose on Friday, but the S&P 500 and the Dow Jones industrial average still recorded their fourth straight week of losses. The Dow closed with a 1.34 percent gain for the day, but was down 1.8 percent for the week, and the S&P 500 ended the 1.6 percent higher, but with a 0.6 percent loss for the week. The Nasdaq, which rose 2.26 percent on Friday, gained 1.1 percent for the week after ending the previous three weeks with declines.
Gov. Ralph Northam of Virginia said on Friday that he and his wife, Pamela Northam, had tested positive for the virus. Mr. Northam, a Democrat, said that he felt fine, while his wife was experiencing mild symptoms. Gov. Mike Parson of Missouri, a Republican, announced Thursday that he and his wife, Teresa, had tested positive. Gov. Kevin Stitt of Oklahoma, also a Republican, contracted the virus in July.
A federal judge barred the Trump administration from ending the 2020 census a month early, the latest twist in years of political and legal warfare over a contested population count that was delayed for months because of the pandemic. In U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California, Judge Lucy H. Koh issued a preliminary injunction on Friday preventing the administration from winding down the count by Sept. 30, a month before the scheduled completion date of Oct. 31.
In Boulder, Colo., public health officials have banned social gatherings of any size and issued a “stay-at-home” order for all people aged 18 to 22. The measure attributed a recent surge in cases to the reopening of the University of Colorado’s Boulder campus on Aug. 24, noting that 78 percent of new virus cases in the county were among that age group. The mandate will remain in effect until at least Oct. 8.
Less than a week before indoor dining resumes in New York City, Mayor de Blasio said that the city’s outdoor dining program would be made permanent and year-round. Restaurants will have the option of enclosing their outdoor areas, but if they do, they will have to adhere to indoor dining restrictions of 25 percent capacity, the mayor said.
Reporting was contributed by Livia Albeck-Ripka, Hannah Beech, Pam Belluck, Choe Sang-Hun, Emily Cochrane, Karen Crouse, Johnny Diaz, Ben Dooley, Michael Gold, Emma Goldberg, Joseph Goldstein, Antonella Francini, Matthew Futterman, Rebecca Halleck, Winnie Hu, Makiko Inoue, Mike Ives, Isabel Kershner, Juliana Kim, Andrew E. Kramer, Dan Levin, Donald G. McNeil Jr., Sarah Mervosh, Raphael Minder, Saw Nang, Richard C. Paddock, Azi Paybarah, Bryan Pietsch, Daniel Politi, Alan Rappeport, Simon Romero, Julie Shaver, Dera Menra Sijabat, Mitch Smith, Liam Stack, Daniel E. Slotnik, Anna Schaverien, Eliza Shapiro, Jeanna Smialek, Mitch Smith, Eileen Sullivan, Michael Wines, Elaine Yu, Mihir Zaveri and Karen Zraick.